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CopyRIGHT!: In the Classroom

Copying for Classroom Use

Copying of copyrighted materials for student learning and research use without written permission may occur in the following instances:

Single copying for instructors
Single copies may be made of any of the following by or for professors at their individual request for scholarly research or use in teaching or preparation to teach a class:

  • One chapter from a book;
  • An article from a periodical, journal, or newspaper;
  • A short story, short essay, or short poem, whether or not from a collective work;
  • A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper.

Multiple copies for student learning use
Multiple copies (not to exceed more than one copy per student in a course) may be made by or for the instructor teaching the course for student learning use or discussion; provided that the following three criteria are met:

  • The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity (as defined below).
  • The copying meets the cumulative effect test (as defined below).
  • Each copy includes a notice of copyright. An example is "this material may be protected by Copyright law (title 17, US Code)."

Brevity: Either a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words, (usually varies 3-8 pages depending on size of page and type) or an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10 percent of the work, whichever is greater.

Spontaneity: The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual teacher, and the inspiration and decision to use the work. The moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.

Cumulative effect: Copying of the material is for only one course in the school in which the copies are made.

Placing Materials on Reserve

Faculty can request the library to place books on reserve via the Reserves Request Form.  Items may also be submitted at the Service Desk of the Library. Read our Course Reserves page for more information.

Print Reserves (Traditional):

  • Faculty copies (items that faculty have loaned the library) are kept behind the Service Desk.
  • Library copies (items the Library owns) are kept behind the Service Desk.
  • Some items may be "Library Use Only," where they are only available for use in the Library.
  • All copies are removed at the end of the semester.  Faculty copies are returned to their owners and Library copies are returned to their original location in the Library.

Electronic Reserves (eReserves):

  • Materials are accessible through the Library’s web site and are password protected.  
  • Materials placed on e-reserves are kept for one semester.
  • The library will only scan 1 chapter (or 10% of a non-chapter book) or 1 journal article per issue into eReserves.
  • For journal articles or book chapters, the full citation is included in the document.
  • There is a limit of 25 eReserves items per course.

Review the "Common Scenarios" page for more guidelines on the fair use and course reserves.

The Sirota Library honors requests from faculty to place course related items on reserve that are in compliance with US Copyright Law (Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107) and the fair use guidelines.

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine and College of Pharmacy
Harlem Campus 230 West 125th Street New York, NY 10027 (212) 851-1199